What is the process of fermentation of wine? 

Wine comes from the fermentation of grapes, and the grapes come into being in a production process where they acquire the necessary consistency and characteristics to be called grapes. When we talk about fermentation in winemaking, we are talking about the catalyzing function that transforms grape juice, also known as must, into a liquid with an alcohol content. But what is this elaboration process like? 

Fermentation process in Wine

In order for the fermentation process for wine to successfully take place, various factors must be present, including the yeasts responsible for the vinification, density, temperature, and oxygen. 

The roll of yeast

In order to make wine, we must include the wild yeasts that are naturally present in the grapes, and cultivated yeasts that are isolated and inoculated in the mix.

There is a wide variety of yeasts used in this process, both natural and artificial, and despite their importance, these microorganisms work only briefly in the process of fermentation, with a maximum duration of 7–21 days, which is enough time to complete their metabolic process of transforming the sugars. 

Wine density

The density of the wine is of utmost importance in the fermentation process, as it helps determine the alcohol level of the final wine. By constantly measuring density, you can know the quantity of sugars present in the must and anticipate the time left to convert them into alcohol.

Temperature considerations 

The internal temperature of the must is one of the factors of special importance. During the fermentation process a large amount of heat is generated, which could move the temperature of the must outside the ideal temperature range for wine production, but varies depending on the type of wine being made. 

Fermentation at very high temperatures could negatively affect the wine, such as stunning the yeasts and leaving them inactive, or even eliminate some of the flavors present in the wine, so it’s very important to adequately control this factor.

What is the process of fermentation? 

In order to begin the process of fermentation, the grapes must be crushed so the must comes into contact with the skins, where the natural yeasts can be found. Provided the previously mentioned conditions are met, the substance then transforms the sugars into alcohol and CO2, creating wine. 

But just because fermentation has taken place does not mean a wine is ready for consumption. The majority of red wines and some white wines go through a second fermentation, called malolactic fermentation, and must also go through a period of aging in tanks, barrels, and bottles, which will influence the final result. 

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